BLUE-FACED ANGELFISH - Pomacantus xanthometopon

Blue-Faced Angelfish - Pomacantus xanthometopon



Blaukopf-Kaiserfisch (Pomacanthus xantometopon) 01.jpg
Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons.
Divine are his creations, all beautiful and all different from each other. God has painted each one in a very unique style and in a very appropriate manner. He gave the sky blue color, the earth brown and green color and the made the sea transparent but due to the blue color of the sky, the sea absorbs shades of blue. In this deep blue sea live uncountable beautiful creatures, some green, some black, some red, some yellow and some blue. Amongst these blue color ones is Blue Face Angelfish.

As the name enunciates all, this beauty does not need much of an introduction. The blue face angelfish has a blue face with a yellow colored mask on eyes and the body a mixture of these two shades. The body is well textured and looks like a painter's color pallet with the body starting from blue color, then yellow color, next part gives an impression of a yellow or white colored net on a blue body and the tail is of yellow color. It looks very attractive with its intense and vibrant shades.

These Blue Faced Angelfish are found in the Indo-Pacific Oceans, ranging from the Maldives to Vanuatu. They dwell in lagoons, reef slopes and channels with fertile algae growth. You can even find them near caves and they prefer roaming all alone. As they are large in size they need bigger tanks because of their huge size, they grow about 15 inches. Unlike others, blue face angelfish sometimes get aggressive towards their own type, only one angelfish should be kept per tank because of their length. Aggressive yet adjusting, it takes only a while to get adjusted, they even become friendly after some time.

Angelfish like to feast on coral, invertebrates and sponges; they can be on brine shrimps too. They are considered as big foodies, they can consume pellets of frozen foods. Be careful with the water quality for these fish, they find it difficult to tolerate nitrate and living with high nitrate levels is just impossible. Not only nitrate, ammonia and nitrite levels should also be at their lowest levels. They preferably want the water temperature to be in a range of 26 degree Celsius to 28 degree Celsius and a pH level of 8.1 to 8.4 would be perfect.

The aquarium must have rocks and plants and vegetation so that this blue face angelfish can get enough space for hiding and swimming. As this fish is aggressive and bit violent, take care of the surroundings that do not give a threat to the fish and put a strain on it.

Although an aggressive is famous for violent behavior still they are easy to keep. Their vibrant and intense colors make it attractive and expensive. So beware of this beauty, bringing this blue face angelfish is not a problem, you just have to be extra careful with it.


Cichlid - Useful Tips About GOLD SEVERUM Cichlids

Heros severus (Cichlasoma severum) "Gold&...
Heros severus (Cichlasoma severum) "Gold" (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
Gold severum cichlids belong to the Cichlidae family of fish. They are generally the shy type of cichlids. They are also one of the largest cichlids growing up to 20cm. Their bodies are shaped like a discus.

Due to their size, these cichlids are best kept in aquariums that are large enough for them to be comfortable in. These cichlids also like to swim all over the aquarium so make sure that they have plenty of swimming space.

Gold severum cichlids are also known as hero cichlids or banded cichlids. The latter name is due to the bands that they have on their bodies. These bands consist of around 7 to 8 stripes which are most vivid on baby cichlids. Once they reach maturity, these bands become less vivid. Male and female cichlids usually have the same color although the females appear paler in comparison to the males.

In addition to that, the females also do not have the pattern on the forehead as the males. These cichlids are particularly hard to breed due to the fact they are very particular when it comes to choosing their breeding partners. But when they do spawn, these cichlids become very territorial and aggressive which makes them very protective of their brood. Gold severum cichlids are open breeders which means they'll lay their eggs on open and flat surfaces.

Gold severum cichlids are omnivorous by nature which means that they'll eat both plants and creatures. But when feeding these cichlids you should stick to their natural diet which means it should contain a lot of vegetable ingredients. They would do well when fed with flake foods, pellets and live worms.

When treated properly and kept healthy, the lifespan of a gold severum cichlid is said to reach over 10 years.

In conclusion, keeping and breeding cichlids is a very satisfying and challenging hobby. Thus, it is very important that you know the secrets of taking care of your cichlids.


Dangerous REPTILES

Aztec double-headed serpent (detail)
Photo  by Neil_Henderson 
When people decide to buy reptiles for pets, some inevitably cross the line of safety and wisdom.  Although it may seem thrilling to own a pet that is harmful, it's best left up to the experts and people who are trained to preserve wildlife.

Underestimating a dangerous reptile can mean a quick and certain death to the uneducated and careless pet owner.  But if you're determined to own a dangerous reptile, at least make sure you are aware of all the possible safety precautions.  Be fully informed as to what steps to take should you incur injury from contact with your pet.

A pet may harm an owner for several reasons.  A reptile has instincts that are inbred.  If you make the mistake of smelling like food, you will be in danger of being mistaken for food.  There's also the danger of underfeeding your reptile and having them strike out in desperation from starvation.  If you startle the reptile, you're likely to be harmed.  If the reptile is injured or ill, the pain may cause them to strike out.  Although it is easy to want to blame the reptile, you must take into account the reasons it may have chosen to bite, scratch, or otherwise harm someone.

Neglect to keep the cage, terrarium, or other enclosure secure at all times is crucial to your safety and to the safety of the reptile.

Some snakes have teeth, some have venomous fangs, and some have constriction to use as weapons.  Whatever the case may be, you can be certain it will be painful to the recipient.  Vipers and rattlesnakes are two dangerous snakes that use their poisonous fangs to inject venom into their prey or attacker.  Vipers can grow as long as 6 feet and don't need daylight to attack.  The pits between their eyes and nostrils alert them to their prey.  A beautifully dangerous reptile, the golden eyelash viper is a bright lemon yellow color.

Snakes aren't the only dangerous reptiles, nor are they the only dangerous reptiles chosen for pets.  Crocodiles and caymans are also big predators.  They latch onto their prey with their many teeth and powerful jaws, and then they drag the larger victims underwater to drown them.  Crocodiles have been known to gobble snakes for treats!

American alligators can be seen in many museums or zoos, live in exhibits.  Well known in the deep south of Louisiana, they are not only predators but also are hunted for food and to be cut up into trinkets sold to tourists.

The alligator disguises itself as a log in swamp water and is camouflaged very well.  They live in swamps and bayous from Texas to North Carolina.  Florida has an abundance of inland water that provides a perfect habitat for these reptiles.  Their diet of fish, birds, and small animals along with their size and vicious capabilities make them unwelcome to most as pet material.  Their habitat is hard to create as well.

You can tell the difference in crocodiles and alligators by the shape of their snouts and the way the teeth lay when the jaws are shut.  The alligator is able to conceal its teeth inside its mouth while the crocodile is not.


Macroalgae As Natural Filtration For REEF AQUARIUMS

Caulerpa is a genus of edible seaweed.

Caulerpa is a genus of edible seaweed. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Removing excess waste is one of the main challenges to a successful reef aquarium. It's often easy for beginners to forget that corals are living animals that excrete waste. Ammonia, nitrite, nitrates and phosphates are problematic to corals, fishes, inverts and other animals. An increase in ammonia that is not quickly removed or converted can easily crash a reef aquarium. High amounts of nitrates and phosphates can hinder coral growth and cause discoloration.

Typical means of removing nitrates and phosphates involve water changes, skimmers and the use of macroalgae. All three are very effective but the use of macroalgae is the easiest and most economical. Skimmers are often expensive and require cleaning few times a week. Water changes are time-consuming and can get expensive for large reef aquariums. Macroalgae can effectively absorb phosphates and nitrates as long as a light source is present. The only maintenance required is pruning excess growth once a month. While skimmers and water changes incur costs, excess trimmings of macroalgae can often be sold.

A side effect of excess nutrients is an increase of nuisance microalgae. Microalgae can ruin the beauty of a reef aquarium and suffocate corals. The good news is that macroalgae are able to able to starve microalgae of nutrients and thus greatly reducing its presence.

There is an abundance of choices of macroalgae that include Chaetomorpha, Caulerpa, Gracilaria and Ulva. In terms of phosphate and nitrate absorption, Caulerpa is the most aggressive and effective. However, Caulerpa can be potentially dangerous. Caulerpa can suddenly dissolve and release toxic elements and the excess nutrients that were absorbed. This happens when Caulerpa is lacking light or nutrients. A second problem with Caulerpa is its holdfast roots. Caulerpa has the ability to attach itself to hard objects making removal extremely difficult. With these risks, it's better to choose other macroalgae.

Chaetomorpha is an excellent and likely most popular choice among reef aquarists for nutrient uptake. Although the nutrient absorption rate for Chaetomorpha is not as aggressive as Caulerpa, it doesn't pose any risks that Caulerpa does. Chaetomorpha will not dissolve suddenly when starved of nutrients or light. There will be plenty of time and signs before Chaetomorpha dissolve. Chaetomorpha also lacks the ability to attach to objects making removal very easy.
Long-term control of excess nutrients is essential for a successful and beautiful reef aquarium. Although skimmers and frequent water changes are extremely effective in removing excess nutrients, macroalgae are the easiest way to remove excess nutrients.


Caring for a Goldfish Aquarium

Photo: Pixabay
Keeping Goldfish can be a fun and rewarding hobby. As with any new hobby, especially one that involves living creatures, always consider the maintenance that will be involved. If you care for your aquarium properly, you will be sure to have happy and healthy Goldfish for many years. Goldfish have a life expectancy of five to ten years. If you do a good job maintaining their fish tank, you should have fun, beautiful fish for a long time. Make sure to feed them correctly and keep their water fresh and clear. 

When starting any new aquarium, you should get everything in place before buying the fish. If you are going to put gravel on the bottom, you may want to put only a thin layer. This will make it easier to keep clean, as Goldfish tend to be messy. Make sure that you rinse the gravel thoroughly before placing it in the bottom of the tank. If you have some decorations, you should add them now. Make sure that you rinse them well before putting them into the tank. Also be sure that the goldfish have plenty of room to swim, as they as active fish. Give them a place or two to hide, and that should do nicely. 

Now that you have everything in place, you can add to the water. You will need to use a dechlorinator, as the chlorine in tap water is poisonous to fish. Once the fish tank is filled up, you can turn on the filter. Change it as often as recommended to keep your fish healthy. Goldfish live at room temperature so you will not need a heater. They are quite comfortable in temperatures from 68 to 80 degrees. However, they should not be exposed to rapid temperature changes. You might want to let the filter run in the new goldfish tank for a day or so to filter out any chemicals or dyes that might have been left on the gravel and decorations that you just added. Waiting to buy new fish can be one of the hardest things about fish keeping! 

You need to add fish gradually. Fish excrete ammonia. If you add too many fish at once to a new fish tank, the water will not be seasoned enough to dissipate it. As the water in your Goldfish tank ages, it builds up beneficial bacteria that turn harmful chemicals excreted by the fish into harmless ones. However, this will take some time. Start out with only one fish. The nitrogen cycle will not begin until you add the fish, so running an empty tank for several days will not help. Since your fish tank is brand new, you might want to consider making partial water changes of about 25 percent of the total water volume every few days for the first week or so. 

You can find Goldfish food at almost any pet shop. Make sure to purchase some when you buy your first fish. Feed only a small amount. Especially at first. Any uneaten food will sink to the bottom and rot. Keep this to a minimum. Watch your fish for the first few times that you feed them. Feed only as much as they will eat in two to three minutes twice a day, or as recommended on the Goldfish food label. Be especially careful not to overfeed when the Goldfish tank is new. This will cause an excess build-up of toxic chemicals and can kill your fish quickly. 

As the water in your fish tank cycles through the nitrogen cycle, you may notice that is becoming very cloudy. This is a normal process and should clear up in a few days. Do not add any new fish until the water is crystal clear again. Clear water will signify that the nitrogen cycle is working and that the toxic chemicals are being converted to good ones. 

Remember that Goldfish will grow large and they need a big space. Don't overcrowd the tank if you want to keep healthy fish. If you follow this little guideline, you will be sure to have a healthy goldfish aquarium.

AQUARIUM FISH death: precautions of young aquarist.

Small Aquarium with Paracheirodon innesi (neon...
Small Aquarium with Paracheirodon innesi (neon tetra), Trigionostigma heteromorpha and Hemigrammus erythrozonus
(Photo credit: 
Another thing to watch out for in a newly installed tank is the quantity of food: very little of this should be given during the first three weeks. Mind you! I am not suggesting that you should not give them food at all, because without food, no bacterial flora forms. The food supply to the bacteria should be increased only very gradually.

Fish keepers with old functional aquariums should avoid general cleaning that is washing of sand/gravel, scrubbing of the tank wall and complete water changes so as not to disturb the bacterial flora.

When you have to service, it should just be the removal of the mulm and dead leaves sufficient to ensure adequate flow through the filter and no more. The bad habit of replacing the entire filter material or the soiled part with fresh materials is detrimental to fish life. Most bacteria live in the sludge at the bottom of the tank, so don't throw them away.

Many pet shops that operate a house-to-house maintenance routine on aquariums are used to the habit of a complete overhaul which invariably lead to fish death. I have met many people who have said, "I used to service my tank myself. On close scrutiny, I discovered that he indulges in the unforgivable habit of washing the aquarium with detergents!

In real life situation, no one can attest to having experienced a complete overhaul of a river bed. The only thing that happens during heavy rains or flood is the partial/complete change of the water body. The bed, sand and gravel components get cleaned but not overhauled.

This is nature's method of 'servicing' the fish's natural environment. So why don't we all adopt nature's method? Professional aquatic pet dealer’s service aquariums in the same way, and to the committed aquarist, I will advise you to do this yourself!