Showing posts with label Dwarf Gourami. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Dwarf Gourami. Show all posts


Tips - DWARF GOURAMI Care and Spawning

Female and male dwarf gouramis (Colisa lalia) ...
Female and male dwarf gouramis (Colisa lalia) showing sexual dimorphism. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)
The gourami or Colisa lalia is a member of the family Belontiidae. It is native to India. The Indian Gourani is often referred to as the dwarf gourami because there is a larger gourami native to Thailand that grows twice the size of the Indian variety.

The Gourami is part of the Anabantoidei suborder. This suborder evolved a lung-like organ known as a labyrinth to help them survive in low oxygenated environments. The labyrinth allows them to breathe atmospheric oxygen. Gouramis will frequently rise to the surface to take in atmospheric oxygen. Members of the Anabantoidei Suborder need a combination of both airborne and dissolved oxygen to survive.

In nature, male dwarf gouramis have diagonal stripes alternating in blue and red. Females are silver. However selective breeding has yielded red, neon, and rainbow variations. Both sexes have tread-like touch-sensitive cells extending from their pelvic fins. Adults reach about two inches in length.

Gouramis are docile in nature. They work well in community tanks as long as they are housed with fish of similar temperament. Despite their shy demeanor, gouramis are aggressive toward other gouramis. Each gourami establishes a territory and hiding place of its own. Gouramis take readily to heavily planted aquariums. They seem to function better in pairs. Keep this in mind when deciding whether they are what you are looking for in the way of a new addition to your tank.

Gouramis thrive in slightly acidic water with a temperature range between 77-82 °F. They are omnivore and can survive perfectly well on a diet of tropical fish flakes.

It is easy to distinguish between males and females. The males have a much brighter color palette. Females are harder to find for sale because of this. If you can not find one at your local fish store they can be ordered online.

Breeding Dwarf Gourami
Gouramis are most likely to spawn in still water. A breeding tank with the filter capacity turned way down will make a suitable environment. Make certain there are floating plants in the breeding tank. The male Gourami will use his labyrinth to make a bubble nest prior to spawning.

Unlike most bubble nest builders, gourami will incorporate small pieces of plants, twigs and other debris into the design of their nest. This addition helps to hold the nest together.

Once the nest is constructed, courting officially begins. Courting is usually initiated in the afternoon or early evening. The males signal his intention to spawn by swimming in circles around the female with his fins flared. If the female accepts his invitation, she will start swimming in circles with the male underneath the bubble nest. When she is ready to spawn she will touch the male on the back or the tail with her mouth.

Spawning generally takes several hours. After spawning is complete remove the female from the tank. The male will stand guard over his bubble nest. The fry will hatch within the next two days. Leave the male with the fry for two or three days. Make sure he is done parenting his brood before removing him to the community tank.

Fry can be fed liquid fry food or small amounts of powdered eggs. After about four days their diet can be changed to newly hatched brine shrimp or finely crushed fish flakes.
Gouramis have been known to mate with other gouramis of another species. Unfortunately, there are usually sterile.

    By Stephen J Broy
    The mere mention of the word "saltwater" sends shivers up many freshwater aquarium owners' spines. In the past decade a new segment of the aquarium industry has been created for home aquarium owners; the Jellyfish Aquarium Fish Tank. Jellyfish aquariums are much easier to maintain than traditional saltwater tanks. Pet Moon Jellyfish look absolutely incredible under a fading LED lighting system. Article Source: EzineArticles


Top 10 Tips on Keeping DWARF GOURAMI

There are different names for Dwarf Gourami fish. Some call them as powder blue Gouramis while others call them as neon blue Gouramis. They have a peculiar habit of swimming together in a pair. Originated from India, they are tropical freshwater fish.

If you plan to keep Dwarf Gourami fish in your aquarium, here are some important tips for you -

1. While buying them from the pet fish shop, you should consult the shop staff and buy them in appropriate proportions. They should be bought in the proportion of three females to one male and you should buy at least a group of 7 to 10 of them at a time. They can live up to four years in aquariums and they will grow up to 4 inches in length.

Dwarf Gourami 2
Dwarf Gourami - Photo by jfinnirwin 

2. The food habits of Dwarf Gourami fish are slightly different from other Gouramis. They will prefer meaty foods as well as algae. Occasionally they will eat flaked food. So you should plan their diet plan carefully. If you notice that their color is fading out, you should increase the proportion of live food in their diet. They will not pick their food as soon as you feed them. Instead they will take it from the bottom of the aquarium once it settles down.

3. They will require a reasonable amount of water and swimming place around the aquarium. So you cannot keep them in a small aquarium.

4. They are playful by nature so they should be kept in a group. If they are kept alone, they will develop stress and get sick.

5. Though all they are comfortable in all types of waters, if you keep them in a tank with the temperature of 75-80° F and with the ph level of 6.0 to 7.0, they will be happier.

6. They require a calm and quiet environment. So if you plan to keep them in the aquarium, you should not set up your aquarium in a noisy place. You should also see that there should not be any direct sunlight coming to the aquarium. The lighting should be moderate and there should not be much movement in the water.

7. If you plan to keep several males, you should remember that they will have territorial ambitions. So they will fight over an area in a small aquarium and may hurt each other. If you see them in a shop, you will always find them fighting. If the aquarium is sufficiently big, they can live peacefully. So you should plan your aquarium size carefully before introducing them.

8. They are always described as wife beaters! Particularly at the time of spawning, they will be impatient and will hurt the females. As a precaution, you should introduce at least two or three females For a male and they all should be shifted in a separate tank. Once the female lays eggs, she should be immediately removed from the tank.

9. The males will take care of the eggs after the spawning. However, when the new ones start coming out, you should shift the male to the main aquarium.

10. Usually the fish keepers are interested in knowing the information about the frequency of breeding of Dwarf Gourami fish. They breed once in a month and at one time they can lay hundreds of eggs. However, they will take a break after 3 to 4 months. This break will be around one month and they will start spawning again.

    Chintamani Abhyankar is a goldfish enthusiast and has been raising and breeding goldfish for many years. He is an expert on their care and an advocate for raising healthy goldfish the natural way.

    Article Directory: EzineArticles



Cichlids are not the only species to create a spawning site or to practise parental control over their young. Members of the Labyrinthfish group, such as Gouramies and Siamese Fighting Fish - also have a refined method of reproduction.

This image shows a Dwarf Gourami female (Colis...
Dwarf Gourami female (Colisa lalia).
(Photo credit: 

It is preferable to give these fish a separate tank in which to spawn; this is not just out of courtesy but perhaps to preserve the tranquility of the community aquarium. In this example, the Dwarf Gourami, Colisa lalia, might be thought a peaceful species but during the build up to spawning the male turns quite ferocious. In a tank containing mostly livebearers, one ardent Dwarf Gourami managed to kill off the majority of the other species before anyone realized what was happening.

There is no difficulty in sexing these fish. The male's flanks are adorned with bright red diagonal stripes and as the onset of spawning occurs his throat and chest region take on a turquoise hue. In contrast, the female can be said to be a little dowdy, just a silvery blue-grey color with only a hint of lines on her side. Of course, following a period of conditioning she will fill out as the eggs build up in her body.

The procedure of the spawning ritual is this: the male constructs a floating bubble-nest using saliva and also fragments of plant material. Usually this is placed in a quiet area of the tank, away from any flow of water returning from the filtration system. The nest extends 2-3 cm (1") into the air and has a diameter of around 10 cm (4"). At the end of this construction phase, the male then entices the female to inspect the structure and, if approval appears forthcoming then the next part of the spawning occurs. However, should the male decide that the female is not quite acceptable to him or she disdains his invitation and shows little interest in his labours then it is likely that he will attack her.

It is therefore important that the spawning tank is well-planted so that the female can escape from the male until she can be rescued (by removal from the tank by the fishkeeper). Of course, plant material is also welcomed by the male to provide building materials for the bubble-nest.

It is possible to condition a pair of Dwarf Gouramies in the spawning tank by using a piece of glass or sheet plastic to divide the tank into two sections. Simply place each fish in their respective halves of the tank and feed well for a couple of weeks.

At the end of the conditioning period, remove the partition and watch what happens, being prepared all the time to step in if the female is attacked. It may be that if a sheet of glass had been used as a partition, the male fish will have had continuous sightings of the female during the conditioning period and may well have begun, or even completed, building a bubble-nest in anticipation of their reunion.

Assuming that all goes to plan, the two fish will embrace beneath the nest, the female will roll over on to her back and the released eggs will be fertilized by the male and float up into the bubble-nest. At the end of the spawning action, the female will probably make a dash into the nearest plants, at which time she should be removed as she will take no further part in the spawning procedure.

Left to his own devices, the male sets about patrolling beneath the nest, regularly repairing parts of it that may be disintegrating and restoring any of the fry that fall out.

One problem with the Dwarf Gourami is the size of the fry or, to be more specific, their need for tiny food. Here the fishkeeper must fall back on to liquid fry food at least, or try a piece of hard-boiled egg yolk squeezed in a piece of cloth in some aquarium water. Do not add too much for fear of tank water pollution. Another possibility is to use 'green water'. This is something that is anathema to pond owners but it can contain microscopic life forms that the fry can eat. Unfortunately, this must obviously be produced ahead of the spawning in order to be ready when needed, so it takes a little forethought to prepare a jar of water and stand it in bright sunshine for a couple for weeks, although you could time it to coincide with the parents' conditioning period.
Eventually the fry will reach a size where they can move on to the usual fry-feeding programme.
There is often quite a high mortality rate of the fry. Some say this occurs around the second week and often point it to cold air entering the aquarium when the hood is opened. To this end, many drape a towel over the hood to exclude draughts but this must be done with caution if the hood is not to over-heat from the lights inside.

    By Dedi Walker
    Dedi Walker is a writer and fish enthusiast. She shares additional information in sites such as Fish Tank and Tilapia Fish [].
    Article Source: EzineArticles


Breeding the Beautiful DWARF GOURAMI

The male Dwarf Gouramis of all the colour variations are brightly coloured, while the females of most colour variations are relatively drab in appearance. However, the Coral Blue Dwarf Gourami is an exception to this in that the Female is also a beautiful Coral Blue colour and is scarcely inferior in colour to the male. The one thing common to all the colour variations is that the males all have some red on them while the females have almost no red.

English: Colisa Lalia bubble nest Category:Gou...
Colisa Lalia bubble nest Category:Gourami images (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

It is extremely unlikely that the dwarf Gouramis will succeed in breeding and raising babies with other fish in the tank. So you need to set up a tank specifically for their breeding. Some people have succeeded with tanks as small as 20 Litres (5 US Gallons), but I prefer a tank of at least 50 litres (13 US gallons).

The temperature should be about 27 degrees C (81 degrees F), and the pH neutral or slightly acidic. The hardness should be no higher than 10 dH. Normally the water level is lowered to about 20 centimetres (8 inches). Although I certainly recommend doing this, I have also succeeded in breeding this fish with much deeper water.

The breeding tank should be very well planted with a variety of types of plant, and including some floating ones.

You should only have one male present, but he can handle more than one female.

The Dwarf Gourami is a bubble nest builder. Unlike most of the Gouramis, the male usually incorporates some floating plants into their nest. As well as actual whole floating plants he may also incorporate bits of plants that he has broken off and chewed. The nest is relatively large compared with the size of the fish as well as being more elaborate than that of most gouramis.

The male will entice a female under the nest. They may have a few trial matings. The male wraps his body round the female, turning her on her side or upside down and he releases his sperm at the same time as she releases her eggs. Any eggs that do not float up into the nest the male will pick up with his mouth and put into the nest. One female can lay up to 800 eggs.

After spawning with one female, the male will entice another one under the nest and this can continue until he runs out of females ready to breed. The total spawning procedure can take several hours. After spawning the male will add another layer of bubbles to the underside of the nest. He will defend his nest and the eggs. The females will need to be removed without disrupting the nest.

Raising the Fry
The eggs should hatch in 12-24 hours, and the fry should be free swimming in about 3 days. It is safer for the male to be removed once the fry are free swimming.

Dwarf Gourami fry are very small. Some people cannot even see them with the naked eye, so babies will need microscopic food for some time. Often the first food to be given to them is green water. This is water with so much free swimming algae that it looks green. The babies will grow and be able to eat bigger microscopic food, generally referred to as infusoria. After a while they will be able to graduate to bigger food like newly hatched brine shrimp and screened Daphnia.

Live food is best for the babies, but this can be supplemented with commercial fry foods.

A filter is necessary, but a normal power filter would suck up many of the babies. People have different ways of solving this problem. Some people put a thin cloth over the water inlet of the filter to stop the fry being sucked in. My preferred solution is to use a sponge filter.


Dwarf Gourami IRIDOVIRUS

General Hardiness
Over forty years ago I first kept and bred Dwarf Gouramis. At that time they could reasonably be described as a hardy fish. Unfortunately the ones we get nowadays have lost much of this hardiness. This loss of hardiness seems to have been caused be several different things.

Gourami (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

They have been selectively bred, producing a number of different colour variations. It is likely that many of these are inbred, and suffer from the lack of vigour frequently caused by inbreeding.
Most of the Dwarf Gouramis bred in places like Singapore will have been kept in controlled conditions and individuals which would have died out quickly in the wild will have survived and often been used for breeding. Related to this is that in captivity fast growth would have been selected for, and particularly fast growth under the near forcing diets fed to commercially bred fish. The fast growing fish are often not as hardy as wild ones.

Related to the lack of hardiness in many commercially bred Dwarf gouramis is the fact that many of them are diseased. They are susceptible to the normal aquarium fish diseases, but one is of particular concern. This is the Dwarf Gourami Iridovirus.

This disease kills the Dwarf Gouramis slowly, sometimes taking as long as a year to kill them. The symptoms include wasting of the fish and there is little doubt that before this disease was identified, fish tuberculosis was blamed for some of the deaths from this virus. This virus may have become a problem because of the extensive inbreeding of this fish in Singapore.

Many virus diseases are specific to a single species, and it is frequently reported that only Dwarf Gouramis can get the Dwarf Gourami Iridovirus. However there are also many conflicting reports.
One study by a team led by Professor Richard Whittington of the University of Sydney, Australia found a 99.95% genetic similarity between the Dwarf Gourami Iridovirus and a virus outbreak in 2003 that killed farmed Murray Cod, Maccullochella peelii peelii. A test showed that Murray Cod can be infected with the Dwarf Gourami Iridovirus, and had 90% mortality.

There is fear that the Mosquito fish (Gambusia species) can act as a carrier for this virus and aid its spread through wild fish populations. This virus has also been reported as affecting swordtails.
One of the problems with these reports is that there are many types of fish Iridoviruses. Some of them will kill or make the fish ill while others seem to have no bad effects on the fish. To really find out what is happening would take a major research effort.

Several internet articles say that 22% of Dwarf Gouramis coming out of Singapore have this virus. This figure is actually based on an study of Dwarf Gouramis in Australian retail aquarium shops. The study found that 22% of these fish were infected with this virus. All the tested fish had been imported from Singapore. The fairly reasonable jump was made to state that 22% of the Dwarf Gouramis coming out of Singapore were infected.

Of course all the tested fish would have been through quarantine and any fish showing signs of disease would have been destroyed. If any batch of fish had a lot of diseased specimens the whole batch would have been destroyed. If an importer loses a whole batch of fish he has lost a lot of money and would look for another supplier.

At least one normally reputable internet site says that most of the fish coming out of Singapore are infecte 22% is a very worrying figure, but it certainly is not "most".

Government Action Needed Now!
The trade in ornamental fish is a major part of Singapore's trade. If there is a problem this serious with Singapore's fish, it needs to be fixed.

Some years ago, a large ornamental fish farm in Australia had a serious problem with a fish disease. With government help they systematically eradicated the disease. This fish farm now has an extremely good reputation for the quality of their fish. Unfortunately they do not breed Dwarf Gouramis.

The government of Singapore needs to recognise that there is a serious problem and to solve it before Singapore's export trade in fish is ruined.

Big Al's Aquarium Services, Ltd.